Despite its common origins in the Americas, NewWorld tobacco followed a somewhat different historical trajectory in China than it did in Europe. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/j.ctt1ppmhf, (For EndNote, ProCite, Reference Manager, Zotero, Mendeley...), 1 Early Modern Globalization and the Origins of Tobacco in China, 1550–1650, 2 The Expansion of Chinese Tobacco Production, Consumption, and Trade, 1600–1750, 3 Learning to Smoke Chinese-Style, 1644–1750, 5 The Fashionable Consumption of Tobacco, 1750–1900, 6 The Emergence of the Chinese Cigarette Industry, 1880–1937, 7 Socially and Spatially Differentiated Tobacco Consumption during the Nanjing Decade, 1927–1937, 8 The Urban Cigarette and the Pastoral Pipe: Literary Representations of Smoking in Republican China, 9 New Women, Modern Girls, and the Decline of Female Smoking, 1900–1976, Epilogue: Tobacco in the People’s Republic of China, 1949–2010. Prior to 1900, Chinese women, “respectable” or not, smoked... Tobacco’s centuries-long career in China sheds light on many themes: the history of Chinese material culture, China’s long-standing participation in transregional and international trade, and shifting patterns of popular and elite consumption, as well as the changing intersections of gender and consumption. The tobacco plant was first brought to China in the 1570s, from the island of Luzon, in what is today the Philippines, by Chen Zhenlong, a merchant from Fujian. China includes approximately one‐fifth of the world's population, and has the world's second largest economy. The plant depletes the soil of nitrogen Try logging in through your institution for access. China's anti-smoking movement was first recorded in 1639, when Ming Dynasty (AD 1368ï¼1644) Emperor Chongzhen issued a national ban on tobacco and stipulated that tobacco addicts be executed. In some ways, the growing popularity of cigarettes in the late Qing and early Republican periods represented a remarkable transformation in consumer preferences in China, just as it did in other markets targeted by newly established transnational tobacco companies. With the Restoration of Charles II in 1660 came a new way of using tobacco from Paris where the king had been living in exile. In 1839, the Daoguang Emperor appointed Lin Zexu Governor of Guangdong province to reduce and eliminate the opium trade. Wax statues of Lin Zexu (right) and Qing Dynasty (AD 1644â1911) Emperor Daoguang in Fuzhou city of Fujian province on May 23, 2013. [ citation needed ] China tobacco also markets premium brands, notably Chunghwa . Tobacco has been pervasive in China almost since its introduction from the Americas in the mid-sixteenth century. From the long-stemmed pipe to snuff, the water pipe, hand-rolled cigarettes, and finally, manufactured cigarettes, the history of tobacco in China is the fascinating story of a commodity that became a … Copyright 1995 - More than half of all adult men in China are regular smokers. Tobacco leaves are sun-dried to reduce the toxicity. China has up to now been left behind much of the rest of Asia in tackling the tobacco epidemic. History of Tobacco in America Tobacco products gained a strong foothold in the US somewhere around the Revolutionary War. 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Here he speaks with former US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, while preparing to light up: US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger in conversation with Deng Xiaoping. The gradual geographical diffusion of commercial tobacco cultivation that occurred between 1600 and 1750 as outlined in chapter 2 resulted not only in a profusion of inexpensive local tobaccos but also in a... Tobacco usewas already pervasive throughout Chinawhen the machine-rolled cigarette first began to take hold in Chinese treaty ports toward the end of the nineteenth century. Chiang Kai-shek, the party head, reformed the anti-drug commission under military departments to an independent section in charge of smoking elimination in the nation, and personnally took command. The extraordinary success of the cigarette... By 1927, as the Nanjing Decade began, China’s cigarette industry was well established. $49.95. In 1638 around 3,000,000 pounds of Virginian tobacco was sent to England for sale and by the 1680’s Jamestown was producing over 25,000,000 pounds of tobacco per year for export to Europe. The socially and spatially differentiated smoking habits outlined in the preceding chapter were part of a growing urban-rural divide in China that by the 1930s “was palpable and real.”¹ In the early twentieth century, industrialization in the treaty ports brought about intensified urbanization along the coast.² As urban standards of living improved relative to those in the countryside, the notion that it was better to live in a city than in a small town, already percolating in the late Qing period, emerged full-blown. As in other contexts, tobacco became indigenized in China in culturally specific ways even as it became a globalized phenomenon. $49.95 Ralph Croizier, Carol Benedict Golden‐Silk Smoke: A History of Tobacco in China, 1550–2010.. Although tobacco was consumed in China as early as the 1500s, cigarettes didn't arrive until the late 1800s, according to the archives at the US's Duke University, immediately after the invention of the cigarette machine in 1881, James B. Duke (1865â1925) is reported to have leafed through a world atlas to survey the population of foreign countries. Much earlier in European history, well before snuff got a foothold in China, Catherine de’ Medici, the queen of France and wife of Henry II, had been a snuff convert. Coming to the figure 430,000,000, he exclaimed, "That is where we are going to sell cigarettes." In 1637, Qing Dynasty (AD 1644–1911) Emperor Kangxi expanded the death penalty to those who possess tobacco. 190 REVIEWS Golden-Silk Smoke: A History of Tobacco in China , 1550-2010 by Carol Benedict. var oTime = new Date(); China alone produces ten times more tobacco than the US. One of the first mass-marketed products in China, cigarettes were introduced from abroad by the British- American Tobacco Co. (BAT), beginning in the coastal cities. Golden-Silk Smoke: A History of Tobacco in China, 1550-2010. The rationale for taking strong public health action against tobacco use in China is unquestionable. Its factory in the Pudong district of Shanghai by 1919 was producing more than 243 million cigarettes per week.[Photo/tobaccochina.com]. Golden-Silk Smoke: A History of Tobacco in China, 1550–2010 - Kindle edition by Benedict, Carol. The content (including but not limited to text, photo, multimedia information, etc) published in this site belongs to China Daily Information Co (CDIC). You do not have access to this Use features like bookmarks, note taking and document.write(oTime.getFullYear()); xiii, 334. By the year 1948, the cultivation area of flue-cured tobacco in China had reached 0.16 million ha and this number further increased to about 0.41 million by the year 1967. Square dancing in Russia's most famous square. In 1637, Qing Along the way, she analyzes the factors that have shaped China's highly gendered tobacco cultures, and shows how they have evolved within a broad, comparative world-historical framework. The ready availability of cigarettes in most areas of the country encouraged many Chinese smokers to abandon snuff and pipe tobacco in favor of rolled tobacco products. Carol Benedict follows the spread of Chinese tobacco use from the sixteenth century, when it was introduced to China from the New World, through the development of commercialized tobacco cultivation, and to the present day Without written authorization from CDIC, such content shall not be republished or used in any form. All rights reserved. Buy Golden-Silk Smoke: A History of Tobacco in China, 1550-2010 by Carol Benedict (ISBN: 9780520262775) from Amazon's Book Store. In 1752, Li Ê, the Han River Poetry Society lyricist who had so passionately promoted tobacco during his lifetime, passed away in his beloved city of Hangzhou. Carol Benedict follows the spread of Chinese tobacco use from the sixteenth century, when it was introduced to China from the New World, through the development of commercialized tobacco cultivation, and to the present day 1769 New Zealand Captain James Cook arrived smoking a pipe, and … Mao Zedong was often pictured with a cigarette in his hand, as in this 1957 shot of him meeting deputies from the Third National Congress of Chinese Communist Youth League. One-third of the world's smokers--over 350 million--now live in China, and they account for 25 percent of worldwide smoking-related deaths. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. With the arrival of the Europeans in the 16th century, the consumption, cultivation, and trading of tobacco quickly spread. Carol Benedict Golden‐Silk Smoke: A History of Tobacco in China, 1550–2010.Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. These cities, like other parts of the world where cigarettes began to displace traditional forms of tobacco in the 1880s and 1890s, were directly linked to the globalizing industrial economy. Farmlands were inspected to eliminate opium poppies. Pp. China Tobacco, like many other tobacco companies, produces a plethora of brands – over 900, the largest of which, Hongtashan (Red Pagoda Hill), accounts for only 4% of total sales. 369,705 people involved in drug making, trafficking and selling were detected and punished. In 1817, the British began to sell a narcotic drug, Indian opium, to China as a way to reduce the trade deficit and to make the Indian colony profitable. Is is not easy to find a comprehensive history of tobacco use in China, most English language sources concentrate on the modern period. From the long-stemmed pipe to snuff, the water pipe, hand-rolled cigarettes, and finally, manufactured cigarettes, the history of tobacco in China is the fascinating story of a commodity that became a hallmark of modern mass consumerism. Overall 20,000 chests (each holding about 55 kilograms) were handed over and destroyed in a 23-day campaign beginning June 3, 1839. Average annual outputs were 0.965, 2.106 and 2.921 million tonnes for the periods 1970-1978, 1979-1992 and 1993-1999, respectively. book Advertisements featuring fashionable courtesans, or sing-song girls of Shanghai around the 1920s testified that the imported habit was trendy in what was then one of Asia's biggest cities. 4 Nevertheless, China is classified as a “developing” country, and as such has not experienced the decline in tobacco‐related diseases that developed countries have observed since the 1980s. On his arrival at Guangzhou, Lin banned the sale of opium, demanded that all opium be surrendered to the Chinese authorities, and required that all foreign traders sign a "no opium trade" bond. China's anti-smoking movement was first recorded in 1639, when Ming Dynasty (AD 1368－1644) Emperor Chong Zhen issued a national ban on tobacco and stipulated that tobacco addicts be executed. WHO age-standardized prevalence for daily adult smoking in China was estimated to be 22% in 2012. Catherine was so impressed with snuff’s palliative effect on her However, by 1820 the planting of tea in the Indian and African colonies, along with accelerated opium consumption, reversed the flow of silver, and the drug had poisoned thousands of Chinese civilians. The chairman and his cigarette lighting fans, 1957. Carol Benedict follows the spread of Chinese tobacco use from the sixteenth century, when it was introduced to China from the New World, through the development of commercialized tobacco cultivation, and to the present day. As the author notes, “ the history of the cigarette in China was simply an amplification of earlier patterns of tobacco production, marketing, and consumption” (p. 131). In contrast to early modern Europeans, who eventually consumed imported tobacco grown by enslaved laborers on colonial plantations and distributed by royal monopolies or government-chartered joint-stock companies, Chinese consumers for the most part smoked tobacco grown in China on countless small family farms spread across the empire. The history of smoking dates back to as early as 5000 BC in the Americas in shamanistic rituals. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011. In April 1935, the Kuomintang Party that then governed China issued a decree that aimed to eliminate drugs in two years and cigarettes in six years. Methods Media monitoring and direct observations were conducted to assess tobacco advertisements for Zhonghua cigarettes in Shanghai, China, through the following channels: newspapers, TV, internet, outdoor advertisements and point-of … Granted, therewere gendered differences in the location of consumption: Chinese men could smoke in public, but well-mannered women smoked privately out of view. China, with its then-430,000,000 potential customers, he told company executives, “is where we are going to sell cigarettes.”¹ When informed that the Chinese did not yet smoke cigarettes, Duke said he supposed they could learn. This book gives a detailed early history as well as a well-referenced account of the spread The earliest tobacco control legislation in the world was in Asia (Singapore, 1970) and bans on duty-free cigarettes (Singapore) and on smokeless tobacco (Hong Kong, 1987), as well as the use of tobacco tax to fund health promotion (Thailand) have … Note: Browsers with 1024*768 or higher resolution are suggested for this site. xiii + 334. The Chinese cigarette market, whether supplied by transnational tobacco companies, Chinese-owned mechanized firms, or localized hand-rolling workshops, expanded spectacularly between 1900 and 1937. . The exact cause of death is uncertain. Earlier chapters describe China’s dynamic culture... JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. China became a Party to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control on January 9, 2006. 1950s ChinaState monopoly takes control of the tobacco business and foreign companies had to leave 1900China almost entirely penetrated by foreign tobacco companies 1858 ChinaTreaty of Tianjin allows cigarettes to be imported into China duty-free 1603 JapanUse of tobacco well- established 1600 IndiaTobacco introduced 1530–China Since the founding of People's Republic of China in 1949, the new Chinese government launched a vigorous crackdown on drugs and tobacco. Mao's successor Deng Xiaoping, another chain smoker, loved expensive Panda cigarettes, and often proffered them to visiting dignitaries. Even as the fortunes of individual companies rose and fell, consumer demand for cigarettes only continued to increase. In 1637, Qing Dynasty (AD 1644â1911) Emperor Kangxi expanded the death penalty to those who possess tobacco. British-American Tobacco Company Limited is among the first batch of firms that introduced cigarettes to China. Much of this domestically produced tobacco was traded locally or intraregionally, but by the eighteenth century a thriving market had also developed for high-end tobacco leaf produced in specialized growing districts... From its earliest introduction in the late Ming period to its wide dispersal in the Qing era, NewWorld tobacco traveled inmultiple directions and alongmyriad paths to become “Chinese.” This process of transculturation was not unique to China, of course, but occurred at roughly the same pace in other parts of Eurasia where other peoplewere first learning to use Amerindian tobacco. Carol Benedict. Although civilians were banned from the puff of pleasure, China's top leaders in the older generation took up the practice with gusto. As detailed in chapter 3, historical and literary representations of Qing-era women consuming tobacco— be it the peasant woman with her rough-hewn pipe or the upperclass matron with her more elegant and refined water pipe— are too common to allow for any other interpretation. Log in to your personal account or through your institution. Shigehisa Kuriyama, Harvard University It … [Photo/xinhuanet.com.cn]. Taking the long view, as I do in the preceding pages, not only allows for comparisons with other societies undergoing similar transformations in their own local cultures of tobacco consumption since 1550 or so; it also facilitates analysis of continuity and change in Chinese consumption practices across the late imperial–modern divide. China’s anti-smoking movement was first recorded in 1639, when Ming Dynasty (AD 1368－1644) Emperor Chongzhen issued a national ban on tobacco and stipulated that tobacco addicts be executed. HISTORY OF TOBACCO 6000 BCE - 2009 CE users were warned they risked nasal cancers. Now, more than a century later, with 350 million–plus smokers, the world’s most populous country has indeed become its largest consumer of manufactured tobacco products.² Although in the twentieth century, transnational corporations... Tobacco was initially carried across the world’s oceans on European ships in the pockets of those people—sailors, slaves, and merchants—whose labors made possible the entire early modern enterprise of maritime trade and overseas colonialism.¹ In the vibrant port cities of the Arabian Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the South China Sea, European seafarers passed along knowledge of Amerindian tobacco to their local counterparts, who in turn initiated others in this new practice. War and tobacco go hand in hand as you will soon see and in 1776 it was used by the revolutionaries as collateral for the loans they were getting from France. From about the year 1914, flue-cured tobacco became widely cultivated in China. [Photo/xinhuanet.com.cn]. Tobacco, a New World crop, became globally enjoyed beginning in the sixteenth century, and Benedict shows us how fully the Chinese have participated in its … 2011. With more than 300 million smokers, China is a country with a high-burden of tobacco-use and, also, one of five focus countries for the Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use. [Photo/icpress.cn]. All Rights Reserved. And a family suspects a man who drowned in a fishing pond after police released him was tortured. Qing Dynasty (AD 1644â1911) Emperor Kang Xi. A opium pipe confiscated during 1950s is on display at Shanghai Museum of Public Security in this undated photo. Smoke Free Places Smoking is completely prohibited in at least 28 indoor public places, including medical facilities, restaurants, bars, and most public transportation. The country was China, and in 1890 the Dukes exported the first cigarettes to the populous Asian nation. Asia has shown that tobacco control is not the prerogative of western countries. Millions of rural immigrants moved to the city, drawn by factory jobs and the expectation of a... From the seventeenth until at least the late nineteenth century, many Chinese women of all social ranks consumed tobacco just as their menfolk did. [Photo/bwg.police.sh.cn]. Production of tobacco in China increased during the past three decades. ©2000-2020 ITHAKA. Instead, Li’s doctors would have... Chinese tobacco, from the seventeenth through the nineteenth century and beyond, formed part of a dynamic domain of consumption that changed over time. [Photo/xinhuanet.com.cn]. From the long-stemmed pipe to snuff, the water pipe, hand-rolled cigarettes, and finally, manufactured cigarettes, the history of tobacco in China is the fascinating story of a commodity that became a hallmark of modern mass consumerism. Special: College candidates face ultimate test. Pp. In 1637, Qing Dynasty (AD 1644–1911) Emperor Kangxi expanded the death penalty to those who possess tobacco. Used by all ranks, classes, and both genders, Chinese tobacco was never one undifferentiated commodity: people inChina, as elsewhere, consumed the substance in socially stratified ways that varied in accordance with price, changing social norms, ideas about itsmedicinal qualities, and the dictates of fashion. [Photo/tobaccochina.com]. Tobacco was introduced to China in the 16th and 17th centuries (Benedict, 2011). Objective To document tobacco advertising practices of a popular, high-grade, domestic cigarette in China across a broad spectrum of channels. 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